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REST API Best Practice on Java, .Net & PHP
Contents


Target Audience: CAST Administrators


Summary: This documentation is aimed at CAST Administrators who would need to configure REST based applications using CAST AIP. It provides a guide based on field experience of how best to configure REST based applications using CAST AIP so that similar configurations can be reused. The typical examples given below have been applied on different versions of CAST AIP based on various requirements.

These configurations are used over and above CAST AIP 8.2.x EJB Specification offering (see Reference Materials below for links) to overcome limitations. The applicability of this guide should have assessed for newer versions of CAST AIP and Extension.


  • Introduction to REST

    This section gives a brief overview of the framework.

    REST (REpresentation State Transfer) describes an architectural style of networked systems such as Web applications. It was first introduced in 2000 in a Ph.D dissertation by Roy Fielding, one of the principal authors of the HTTP specification. REST refers to a collection of architecture constraints and principles. An application or design, if it meets those constraints and principles, is RESTful. Important REST principles for Web applications is that the interaction between the client and server is stateless between requests. Everything is a Resource In the REST architectural style, data and functionality are considered resources and are accessed using Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs), typically links on the Web.

    REST Applicability & Implementations:

    Image result for java rest      


  • REST vs technology

    WCF RESTful Service                    



    Implementation APIs

    Implementation

    Versions

    Support

    JSR

    JAX-RS

    Apache CXF

    3.0.14

     

    311 & 339

    YES

    Jersey

    2.15

     

    312 & 339

    YES

    RESTEasy

    3.1.4

     

    313 & 339

    YES

    Spring

    3.x

     

    314 & 339

    YES

    RESTlet

    2.3.10

    No directly Support

     

     

    Wink

     

    No directly Support

     

     

    Cuubez

    1.1.1

    No directly Support

     

     

    JELLO

    1.2.7

    No directly Support

     

     

    AtomGraph Processor

    1.1.3

     

     

     

    Yii Framework

    2.0.12

     

     

     

    Tastypie supports HATEOAS[7]

    0.13.3

     

     

     

    WSO2

    4.7.0

     

     

     

    Zend Framework

    3

     

     

     

    Symfony Framework 

    3.3

     

     

     


    SOAP/REST Comparision

    SOAP and REST can't be compared directly. Because SOAP is a protocol but REST is an Architectural style and a design for network-based software architectures.

    SOAP (Protocol)

    REST (Architectural style)

    JAX-WS is the java API for SOAP web services.

    JAX-RS is the java API for RESTful web services.

    WSDL: Web Service Description Language

    WADL: Web Application Description Language

     

    REST is more dynamic, no need for creating and updating UDDI

    SOAP only support XML. Requires more bandwidth in terms of payload.

    REST supports different format like text, JSON, XML etc. Sending data over the network as JSON is cheaper than sending it in XML format in terms of payload.

    SOAP can use almost any transport to send the request.
    Supports SSL, WS-Security, WS-AtomicTransaction, WS-ReliableMessaging which adds some enterprise security features.

    REST uses HTTP/HTTPS (Transport level security).

    SOAP has comprehensive support for both ACID based transaction management for short-lived transactions and compensation based transaction management for long-running transactions. It also supports two-phase commit across distributed resources.

    REST is limited by its HTTP protocol so its transaction support is neither ACID compliant nor can provide two phase commit across distributed transnational resources.

    SOAP uses services interfaces to expose the business logic.

    REST uses URI to expose business logic.

    SOAP defines standards to be strictly followed. SOAP is a successor of XML-RPC and is very similar, but describes a standard way to communicate.

    REST does not define too much standards like SOAP. Though as per need "Richardson Maturity Model" can be applied.

    Focus on exposing pieces of application logic (not data) as services. SOAP exposes operations. SOAP is focused on accessing named operations, each implement some business logic through different interfaces.

    REST is for are exposing a public API over the internet to handle CRUD operations on data. REST is focused on accessing named resources through a single consistent interface.

    SOAP based reads cannot be cached.

    REST has better performance and scalability. REST reads can be cached.

    SOAP describes functions, and types of data.
    WSDL defines contract between client and service.

    Everything in REST is considered as a resource identified by an URI using POST, GET, PUT, DELETE operations which are similar to Create, Read, update and Delete(CRUD) operations.

    SOAP has successful/retry logic built in and provides end-to-end reliability even through SOAP intermediaries.

    It doesn't have a standard messaging system and expects clients to deal with communication failures by retrying.



  • Versions of REST Framework supported by CAST

    This section highlights the REST versions supported by CAST AIP version 8.3.x.

    CAST Technology support for JAX-RS - 1.2 & Spring MVC - 1.2      :  


    Where ever we find REST implementation, irrespective of any technology/implementation below are the thumb rule needs to be followed for....

Standard flow: CAST View with REST Layers

Where ever we find REST implementation, irrespective of any technology/implementation below are the thumb rule needs to be followed for....
1. REST Intermediary – REST Service PROVIDER + CONSUMER
2. REST Entry point    – REST Service PROVIDER
3. REST End point      – REST CONSUMER

REST as Intermediate - Service PROVIDER + CONSUMER

This is the most common scenario, of REST implementation. (i.e.,) There are cases, REST Services are exposed, and these REST services will be consumed with in application boundary source code.

REST Entry point: REST Service PROVIDER

As in enterprise application REST Endpoints will be we exposed for the consumption of external application / up-stream request. In this kind of scenario those exposed Endpoints need to be treated as the Entry point.

                         

REST End point: REST CONSUMER

Considering application boundary our application may need to consume, External application's REST Endpoint.
In these cases those REST End point services which are being consumed by us will be treated as the Endpoint in the transaction.
For an example there could be external REST service(Payment gateway) exposed by outside to the boundary of an application. Our application need to consume those service then we may have REST client as END point.


  • REST in Java

    This section gives a brief overview of REST Implementation in Java.

    • File Types expected for CAST Analysis

This section highlights all the file types that can be expected to be delivered if the application has implemented this framework.

Java

.js
.java
.HTM
.HTML
.jsp


    • How to identify the implementation of Java:

      This section details the approach for identifying the presence in java
      REST implementation can be in many from. However in general you may find through Spring, Jersey framework as described below

      Java


      Spring ControllerJersey

      @RestController

      @RequestMapping("/path")

      @Path(“/path”)


      Using the above "Annotation" you find in your code (i.e.,) JavaScript making call to your REST as

      Call from JavaScript: 

      REST Controller (.java file)        

      (.java file)

      Spring to JAX-RS Cheat Sheet:

      This is not an exhaustive list, but it does include the most common annotations.

      Spring Annotation

      JAX-RS Annotation

      @RequestMapping(path = "/END_POINT")

      @Path("/END_POINT")

      @RequestMapping(method = RequestMethod.POST)

      @POST

      @RequestMapping(method = RequestMethod.GET)

      @GET

      @RequestMapping(method = RequestMethod.DELETE)

      @DELETE

      @ResponseBody

      N/A

      @RequestBody

      N/A

      @PathVariable("id")

      @PathParam("id")

      @RequestParam("xyz")

      @QueryParam('xyz")

      @RequestParam(value="xyz"

      @FormParam("xyz")

      @RequestMapping(produces = {"application/json"})

      @Produces("application/json")

      @RequestMapping(consumes = {"application/json"})

      @Consumes("application/json")

       


    • Java REST Description:

      JAX-RS: Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS), is a set if APIs to developer REST service. JAX-RS is part of the Java EE6, and make developers to develop REST web application easily.

      Jersey: Jersey is the open source, production quality, JAX-RS (JSR 311) Reference Implementation for building RESTful Web services. But, it is also more than the Reference Implementation. Jersey provides an API so that developers may extend Jersey to suit their needs.


    • How to configure Java REST in CAST AIP:

      This section describes all the CAST configuration steps to be followed in order to configure Java REST based application.
      The CAST configuration steps given below are based on the code snippets showing a typical transaction flow such as    html →  Controller → Angular JS Service → REST http GET/POST Operation → Method calls → "File Operation".  The Controller is mandatory for REST implementation.

      Note that there can be multiple type of code implementation styles.


      • Server Manager Configuration

        Once after successful CAST Extend - JAX-RS Annotations installation, Enable the extension through "Server Manager" as below:


        Pre-Analysis Configuration

        Install JAX-RS Extension from CAST Extend - JAX-RS Annotations. Manage it using Server Manager. Note that there is no need to create any exclusive CMS Job as mandated in other extensions.



      • Enlighten

        This Section gives an overview of the Enlighten diagram

      • CMS Configuration

        NA

      • TCC Configuration  

        This Section describes the TCC configuration which needs to be set. 
        Where ever we find REST implementation, irrespective of any technology/implementation below are the thumb rule needs to be followed for....

        • REST as Intermediate - Service PROVIDER + CONSUMER

          No special configuration required here.

        • REST Entry point: REST as Service PROVIDER



        • REST End point: REST CONSUMER



  • REST in .Net

    This section gives a brief overview of REST Implementation in Java.

    Net’s Web API is an easy way to implement a RESTful web service using all of the goodness that the .net framework provides. Once you understand the basic principles of REST, then a .net Web API will be very easy to implement.

    Web API is built on .net’s modular, pluggable pipeline model. This means that when a server hosting a web API receives a request, it passes through .nets request pipeline first. This enables you to easily add your own modules if you find that the default capabilities are not enough for your needs. With the recent announcements on ASP.net vNext this also means you can potentially host your Web API outside of Windows Server which opens up a whole range of usage cases. See http://www.asp.net/vnext for detail.

    Web API uses the Controller and Action concepts from MVC so if you already understand .net MVC you are in a good place. If you don’t, then Web API is a great way to learn MVC.


    • File Types expected for CAST Analysis

This section highlights all the file types that can be expected to be delivered if the application has implemented this framework.

C#

.cs
Web.config


    • How to identify the implementation of .Net

      This section details the approach for identifying the presence in C#

      • Option 1

        C#

        [ServiceContract] - Interface

        [OperationContract] - Service

        [WebInvoke] - REST declaration

         

        Note: WCF meant for various implementation / features.

        REST can be implemented by the above mentioned pattern.


        Using the above elements you will be able find as

        EmpInfoService.cs

        EmploeeeService.cs


        Web.config

    • Option 2

      This section details the approach for identifying the presence in C#

      C#

      [HttpPost]        - WebAPI

      [Route]            - Route class

      ApiController  - Controller class

       

      Note: WCF meant for various implementation / features.

      REST can be implemented by the above mentioned pattern.


      Using the above elements you will be able find as





      ValidateController.cs





    • .Net REST Description:

      This section gives a brief overview of .Net REST.

      Web API uses the Controller and Action concepts from MVC so if you already understand .net MVC you are in a good place. If you don’t, then Web API is a great way to learn MVC.

      Resources are mapped directly to controllers; you would typically have a different controller for each of your main data entities (Product, Person, Order etc). Web API uses the .net routing engine to map URLs to controllers. Typically, APIs are held within a ‘/api/’ route which helps to distinguish API controllers from other non-API in the same website.

      Actions are used to map to specific HTTP verbs, for example you would typically have a GET action which returns all of the entities. This action would respond to /api/Products (where ‘products’ is your controller).

    • How to configure .Net REST in CAST AIP:

      • Server Manager Configuration

        NA

      • Pre-Analysis Configuration

        NA

      • Enlighten




      • CMS Configuration

        NA

      • TCC Configuration

        eFile

  • REST in PHP

    • File Types expected for CAST Analysis

This section highlights all the file types that can be expected to be delivered if the application has implemented this framework.

PHP

.php
.htaccess




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