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Summary: This document provides information about the extension providing UNIX Shell support.

Extension ID

What's new?

Please see Shell 1.2 - Release Notes for more information.


This extension provides support for applications written using UNIX Shell languages.

In what situation should you install this extension?

If your application contains source code written using UNIX Shells and you want to view these object types and their links with other objects, then you should install this extension.

Supported UNIX shells

This version of the extension provides partial support for:

UNIX shellSupported
Bourne shell (bsh/sh/shell)(tick)
Bourne-Again Shell (bash)(tick)
C shell (csh)(tick)
KornShell (ksh)(tick)
Secure Shell (ssh)(tick)
Tenex C Shell (tcsh)(tick)

Function Point, Quality and Sizing support

This extension provides the following support:

  • Function Points (transactions): a green tick indicates that OMG Function Point counting and Transaction Risk Index are supported
  • Quality and Sizing: a green tick indicates that CAST can measure size and that a minimum set of Quality Rules exist
Function Points
Quality and Sizing(tick)

AIP Core compatibility

This extension is compatible with:

AIP Core release

Extension release



≥ 1.0.1(tick)

Supported DBMS servers

This extension is compatible with the following DBMS servers:

CSS / PostgreSQL(tick)


(tick)An installation of any compatible release of AIP Core (see table above)

Download and installation instructions

The extension will be automatically downloaded and installed in CAST Console when you deliver Shell code (i.e. any file with an extension listed below). You can manage the extension using the Application - Extensions interface:

Prepare and deliver the source code

Once the extension is downloaded and installed, you can now package your source code and run an analysis. The process of preparing and delivering your source code is described below:

Source code preparation

Only files with following extensions will be analyzed:

  • *.bash
  • *.bsh
  • *.csh
  • *.ksh
  • *.sh
  • *.shell
  • *.ssh
  • *.tsch

If any files intended for other applications are included in the delivery and which are renamed to supported Shell extensions, the following effects might be observed during an analysis:

  • inconsistent objects may get created
  • end of string ''' not found errors
  • if the file is binary: Invalid UTF-8 sequence found in text to be matched or searched for a regular expression

Source code preprocessing 

Shell source code needs to be preprocessed so that CAST can understand it and analyze it correctly. In previous releases of the Shell extension, this preprocessing was a manual action that needed to be completed before the code was analyzed. However, in this release and all future releases, the code preprocessing is actioned automatically when an analysis is launched or a snapshot is generated (the code is preprocessed before the analysis starts). In other words you only need to package, deliver and launch an analysis/generate a snapshot for the preprocessing to be completed.

Note that the LISA folder will be used to analyze the preprocessed files.

Deliver the source code

Analysis configuration and execution

There are no analysis/technology configuration options available for Shell, however you should check that at least one Shell analysis unit has been created as shown below.

AIP Console exposes the technology configuration options once a version has been accepted/imported, or an analysis has been run. Click Universal Technology (3) in the Config (1) > Analysis (2) tab to display the available options for your Shell source code:

Then choose the relevant Analysis Unit (1) to view the configuration:

Logging mechanism

Analysis log files

Analysis logs are stored in the default locations.

Shell Preprocessor

Shell Preprocessor log files (the preprocessor is launched automatically during an analysis) are stored in the following locations:

LocationLog file name

What results can you expect?


IconMetamodel Name

SHELL Project

SHELL Program

SHELL Function

SHELL Special Function

Call to a Java program

Call to a program
Source ObjectLink TypeTarget Object
SHELL ProgramcallProgLinkSHELL Program
SHELL ProgramincludeSHELL Program
SHELL ProgramcallLinkSHELL Function/Special Function
SHELL Function/Special FunctioncallLinkSHELL Program
SHELL Function/Special FunctioncallLinkSHELL Function/Special Function
SHELL Function/Special Function/Programuse select, update, insert, deletedata functions
SHELL Function/Special Function/ProgramcallLinkCall to a Java program
SHELL Function/Special Function/ProgramcallLinkCall to a program
SHELL Function/Special Function/ProgramcallLinkSQL Table
SHELL Function/Special Function/ProgramcallLinkSQL Script

Embedded SQL

Shell allows the use of here-document to write SQL queries, for example:

/opt/solid/bin/solsql db db <<abc
select count(*) from table_1;
select count(*) from table_2;

The Shell extension can use these queries to create links.

Call to SQL script

The Shell extension allows links to SQL script when used with a dependency to the SQL analyzer

For example:
#!/bin/env bash

sqlplus script.sql

In Enlighten

Links to external programs

The following call pattern are supported

  • ./exe
  • /path/to/exe
  • python
  • java
  • nohup
  • eval

The extension does support links between Shell programs and Java objects (for example methods). Links will be created between these technologies.

The extension manages call to Java classes and .jar files. For .jar files no links will go further as .jar aren't handle by any extensions, the link is purely informative.

Basic Case

/bin/java UpdateRepartiteurs

wil generate the following diagram

Function Case

MajRepartiteurs ()
	java UpdateRepartiteurs

will generate the following diagram

The extension does support links between Shell programs and COBOL objects (for example programs). Links will be created between these technologies.

Basic Case

COBOL file

* simple hello world program
    DISPLAY 'Hello world!'.

SHELL script


will generate the following diagram

The extension does support links between Shell programs and Python objects (for example methods). Links will be created between these technologies.

The following script


will generate the following diagram, assuming that exists and has been analyzed

Structural Rules

The following structural rules are provided:

You can also find a global list here:||.

Limitations/known issues

Deployment folder path

The deployment folder path should contain only ASCII characters (due to the way the command line text is passed in a Windows operating system). Names of folders and files inside the deployment folder can contain non-ASCII characters.

Links to database objects

When your Shell scripts contain references to database objects in the server side element of an application and these references use fully qualified names for the database object, no links will be created between Shell and the database objects when you have used the SQL Analyzer extension to analyze the SQL if SQL Analyzer does not create database objects with same name. If you have used the SQL analyzers embedded in CAST AIP to analyze the SQL, then links will be created as normal. This is a known issue.

Metrics Assistant (embedded in CAST AIP) limitations

Searches not limited only to embedded SQL

The MA (Metric Assistant) which is used for metric search cannot search only in embedded SQL. Some Shell rules may be affected by this limitation and may produce false violations.

Cannot calculate metric excluding comments

The MA (Metric Assistant) which is used for metric search cannot search correctly while excluding comments especially if comments start or end adjacent to the keyword. If such a condition exists, random false violations may occur.

Shell embedded strings

Shell code allows string to be embedded in strings as shown in the code sample below. Currently, the Shell extension (and other Universal Analyzer type extensions) will consider this as one continuous string. Because we do not have any way to identify perfect end string patterns in this case, we cannot find the end of string and therefore the file will be skipped during the analysis.

echo '              
Outer string ;              
cat '$file03'             
Another outer string              
' | $command

KSH: guessing of ending single\double quote

Note that this limitation is no longer applicable to Shell ≥ 1.0.10.

KSH supports the guessing of ending single/double quotes. The Shell extension supports this when the string is in single line, however, it is not supported when the string is in a multiple line, for example:

export OUTPUT=`basename $SOME_VARIABLE | $AWK 'FS="-" {
  tmpMachineName= "mach_"$2
  while ( i <= NF){

Multi-line document markers

Note that this limitation is no longer applicable to Shell ≥ 1.0.10.

When a document marker is in a multi-line string, the Shell extension will not be able detect that it is in a string, for example:

x;y;z<<;strong text"

In both of these cases, the file will be skipped and logs will contain the warning: "File Skipped".

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